Rewards Stacking: How to Build Wealth From Credit Card Rewards

Several years ago, I stumbled upon a quote from Dave Ramsey about credit card rewards. I’ll never forget those 11 words. :

“No one ever says they got rich off of credit card points.” (Source).

Now, I have a confession to make. Dave Ramsey annoys me. I agree with much of what he says about finances, but his attitude that he’s always right grates on my nerves like nails on a chalkboard. He also labels anyone who can add 2 + 2 a “math nerd,” reminding me of a middle school bully I knew.

As I read his words, I knew immediately that he was wrong. One could build wealth through credit card rewards. In this sense, credit card rewards aren’t special. Saving and investing small amounts of money from any source over a long time will turn into piles of cash. We just need to allow compounding to work its magic.

It was then that the idea of Rewards Stacking was born. Over the past four years, we’ve saved and invested all our credit card rewards. Our balance now stands at $40,403.95. I’ll be keeping a monthly track of the balance below.

2024

While that doesn’t make us rich (yet), it’s an impressive sum, particularly when you consider that it required no sacrifice on our part. It wasn’t about cutting back or working harder—just saving and investing the free money credit card issuers send us every month.

In this article, I’ll share exactly how we did it and, more importantly, how you can do it, too.

How Much Wealth Can You Build With Credit Card Rewards?

Let’s start by asking a simple question–is the strategy worth the effort? Here’s a table showing how much wealth you could build per $1,000 spent monthly on a rewards credit card. I’ve assumed an 8% annual return on your investments.

Annual Rewards1 Year3 Years5 Years10 Years20 Years30 Years
1%$120$124$403$729$1,801$5,690$14,086
1.5%$180$186$605$1,094$2,702$8,535$21,128
2%$240$249$807$1,459$3,602$11,380$28,171
2.5%$300$311$1,009$1,824$4,503$14,225$35,214
3%$360$373$1,211$2,188$5,404$17,070$42,257
3.5%$420$435$1,413$2,553$6,304$19,915$49,299
4.0%$480$497$1,615$2,918$7,205$22,760$56,342
4.5%$540$560$1,816$3,283$8,106$25,605$63,385
5.0%$600$622$2,018$3,647$9,006$28,450$70,428

Now, you may wonder how anybody could average 5% in rewards on all purchases. Agreed. It’s tough, although you can earn 5% cash back on many spending categories, as you’ll see below.

Let’s assume you average 3% in rewards for every dollar charged to a card. Here’s the wealth you could build over time.

Monthly Spending1 Year3 Years5 Years10 Years20 Years30 Years
$1,000$373$1,211$2,188$5,404$17,070$42,257
$2,000$746$2,422$4,377$10,807$34,140$84,513
$3,000$1,119$3,633$6,565$16,211$51,210$126,770
$4,000$1,492$4,844$8,753$21,615$68,280$168,026
$5,000$1,865$6,055$10,942$27,019$85,350$211,283
$10,000$3,730$12,110$21,883$54,037$170,700$422,565

To put these numbers into perspective, the median retirement savings for those 55 to 64, according to the Federal Reserve, is just $185,000.

How to Pick Your Credit Cards for the Rewards Stacking Strategy

If you’re still with me, let’s dive into the details of the Rewards Stacking Strategy.

We first need to decide on the credit cards we’ll be using to maximize our rewards. To do this, we need to consider two very important questions:

1. How many credit cards do you want to carry, and 

2. How much do you spend each month, and on what?

How Many Cards Should You Carry?

There is no one “right” answer to this question. Some want the simplicity of using just one card, while others feel they are missing out if they don’t have at least 27 (seriously!).

The more cards you carry, the higher the average rewards you can earn, at least to a point. Why? Many cards pay 4%, 5%, or even 6% cash back, but only on select categories of purchases. Thus, you could have separate cards for gas, groceries, streaming, travel, restaurants, and the list goes on.

Some keep it simple with one card, some go extreme with a dozen or more, and many take the middle road with two to five cards. You need to decide what is best for you.

Based on your answer to this question, we’ll look at specific credit cards to consider in just a moment.

How Much Do You Spend Each Month By Category?

The second question we need to answer is how much we spend each month and in what categories. The answer to this question is critical in determining the best credit card strategy.

NOTE: If you opt for the One Card Strategy, you can skip this question in most cases. Why? You’ll want to find the single card that pays the highest rewards on all purchases (see below).

For example, a family of four will spend much more on groceries than a retiree living alone. Thus, a family of four could benefit from a credit card with higher rewards at the supermarket. The retiree, in contrast, may want a card that pays higher rewards on healthcare costs or travel.

If you track your spending, this step is easy. Simply pull up all of your spending for the past year by category. This is easy to do with some of the more popular budgeting apps. Armed with this information, we can now move to specific credit card setups.

Credit Card Combos

Now the fun begins. With answers to the two questions above, we can decide on the specific credit cards that will enable you to maximize your rewards.

I’ve divided this section based on the number of cards you want to use, from one to three. Of course, you could use this same process to add even more cards to your arsenal.

One Card Setup

If you want to carry just one card, aim for a card that pays at least 2% cash back on all purchases. There are several 2% reward cards with virtually no strings attached in the credit card space. Here are a few options:

Wells Fargo Active Cash2% cash back on all purchasesNo annual fee$200
Citi Double Cash2% cash back on all purchasesNo annual fee$200
Synchrony Premier World Mastercard2% cash back on all purchasesNo annual feeNone
SoFi Unlimited 2% Credit Card2% cash back on all purchasesNo annual feeNone
Fidelity Rewards Visa Signature Credit Card2% cash back on all purchasesNo annual feeNone*

*Occasionally, Fidelity customers may receive signup bonus offers via mail.

Some cards pay more than 2% cash back on all purchases. Keep in mind that all of these cards have strings attached. Still, they may well be worth it.

Alliant Cashback Visa Signature Credit CardEarn 2.5% cash back on your first $10,000 of qualifying eligible purchases each month (1.5% for purchases over $10,000No annual feeYou must also have an Alliant High-Rate Checking that meets certain qualifications.
Robinhood Gold Card3% cash back on all purchasesNo annual fee, but it requires membership in Robinhood’s Gold program, which costs $50 if paid annually.Cash back rewards can only be deposited into a Robinhood account.
Bank of America Premium Rewards Credit CardEarn at least 2.625% on all purchases$95It requires the Platinum Honors Tier, which in turn requires $100k or more in BofA and/or Merrill accounts.
Fidelity Rewards+*Earn up to 3% on all purchasesNoneRequires at least $2M in investments managed at Fidelity

*Fidelity Rewards+ is part of the Fidelity Rewards Signature Visa Credit Card for those who qualify.

Two Card Combo

Adding a second card can greatly increase your average rewards rate. The big question is how to decide on a second card and how much it will increase our wealth over time. 

The first thing to note is what the reward rate is on your first card. That rate sets the floor for all future reward cards. For our purposes, we’ll assume that your first card pays a base rate of 2% cash back on all purchases.

Next, we want to identify the five expense categories where we spend the most money. For many, the top five will likely fall into some combination of these categories (Source: BLS):

  • Groceries
  • Travel
  • Restaurants
  • Utilities
  • Healthcare
  • Entertainment
  • Clothing

You’ll note that I haven’t included a mortgage or rent payment, car payments, or student loans. Housing is by far the largest expense category for many people. If you own your home, however, mortgage payments generally cannot be made on a credit card. The same is generally true for student loans and car payments. Credit cards are not accepted.

If you rent, however, you do have an option. The Bilt Mastercard pays 1% cash back on rent, with no annual fee. It’s a low rewards rate, but it is the best available option on rent that I can find.

You can find your second card once you know where you spend the most money. For the 2-card combo, the second card should cover as many of your top categories as possible. While there’s no way for me to predict what that will be for you, I think the following cards are good options for the majority of people who want a 2-card combo:

Chase Freedom Unlimited

Our Rating: 4.9

★★★★

Chase Freedom Unlimited®

Welcome Offer

Earn an extra 1.5% on everything you buy (on up to $20,000 spent in the first year)

Est. Value

$200

Annual Fee

$0

APR

20.49% – 29.24% Variable

Credit Req’d

Excellent, Good

Rewards: Earn 5% cash back on travel purchases through Chase (after your first year or $20,000 spent). 3% cash back on dining and drugstore purchases. 1.5% cash back on other purchases.

The Chase Freedom Unlimited® offers 3% or more cash back at drugstores, dining, and travel, which cover a lot of spending categories. You also get a nice suite of benefits such as trip cancellation/trip interruption insurance and auto rental collision damage waiver.

1.5% cash back
On all other eligible purchases
Earn 1.5% cash back on all other purchases
3% cash back
Drugstores
Earn 3% on drugstore purchases
3% cash back
Dining
Earn 3% cash back on dining at restaurants, including takeout and eligible delivery services
5% cash back
Travel
5% cash back on all travel purchased through Chase Travel(SM)

Pros

  • Welcome offer
  • No annual fee
  • Up to 5% cash back

Cons

  • Foreign transaction fee
  • Requires good credit
App StatusDateCredit ScoreBureauCredit Limit
Approved03/20/2023
785
Experian
$5,000
Approved07/18/2023
765
Experian
$12,500
Approved07/18/2023
773
TransUnion
$12,500
Approved07/18/2023
785
Equifax
$12,500
Approved09/06/2023
754
Experian
$9,000
Approved09/08/2023
740
Equifax
$15,000
Denied09/05/2023
738
Experian
---
Denied09/05/2023
740
Equifax
---
Denied09/05/2023
750
TransUnion
---
Chase Sapphire Preferred

Our Rating: 4.9

★★★★

Chase Sapphire Preferred® Card

Welcome Offer

Earn 75,000 bonus points

Est. Value

Up to $1,612.50

Annual Fee

$95

APR

21.49%-28.49% Variable

Credit Req’d

Excellent, Good

Rewards: Earn 5x points on travel purchased through Chase. 3x points on dining, select streaming services, and online groceries (excluding Target, Walmart, and wholesale clubs). 2x points on other travel. 1x points on other purchases.

The Chase Sapphire Preferred® Card might be the best bang for your buck among travel credit cards. Your Chase Ultimate Rewards points get a 25% boost in value when redeemed for travel; the welcome bonus is worth slightly less than the Chase Sapphire Reserve®‘s, and the annual fee is about 20% of the Reserve. You even get a $50 hotel stay credit when you book through Chase, making the net cost even lower.

1x points
On all other eligible purchases
1x points on all other purchases
2x points
Travel
2x points on all other travel purchases
3x points
U.S. supermarkets
Earn 3x points on online groceries (excluding Target, Walmart and wholesale clubs)
3x points
Streaming services
Earn 3x points on select streaming services
3x points
Dining
3x points on dining
5x points
Travel
5x points on travel purchased through Chase Travel(SM)

Pros

  • Welcome offer
  • No foreign transaction fee
  • Earns Chase Ultimate Rewards points
  • Up to 5x points

Cons

  • Annual fee
  • High APR
  • Requires good credit
App StatusDateCredit ScoreBureauCredit Limit
Approved08/03/2023
872
Not Provided
$19,500
Approved04/19/2023
737
Equifax
$16,000
Approved04/19/2023
747
Experian
$16,000
Approved04/19/2023
747
TransUnion
$16,000
Approved11/11/2023
800
Not Provided
$16,800
Approved04/18/2023
790
Experian
$17,300
Approved05/21/2023
703
Experian
$17,300
Approved04/04/2023
735
Equifax
$17,300
Approved04/04/2023
825
Experian
$17,300
Approved07/06/2023
735
Experian
$5,000
Approved07/06/2023
745
Equifax
$5,000
Approved07/06/2023
755
TransUnion
$5,000
Approved10/19/2023
720
Not Provided
$19,500
Approved06/14/2023
759
Experian
$6,000
Approved04/06/2023
897
Not Provided
$23,800
Approved04/14/2023
765
Experian
$7,200
Approved04/14/2023
777
Equifax
$7,200
Approved04/14/2023
777
TransUnion
$7,200
Approved10/23/2023
745
TransUnion
$5,000
Approved10/03/2023
761
Equifax
$18,000
Approved10/03/2023
767
Experian
$18,000
Approved10/03/2023
774
TransUnion
$18,000
American Express Blue Cash Preferred

Our Rating: 4.5

★★★★

Blue Cash Preferred® Card from American Express

Welcome Offer (Terms Apply)

Earn a $250 statement credit

Est. Value

$250

Annual Fee

$0 intro annual fee for the first year, then $95.

APR

19.24% – 29.99% Variable

Credit Req’d

Good, Excellent

Rewards: Earn 6% cash back on select U.S. streaming services and on groceries up to $6,000 per year at U.S. supermarkets, then 1%. 3% cash back at U.S. gas stations and transit. 1% cash back on other purchases.

The Blue Cash Preferred® Card from American Express offers 6% cash back on groceries, up to $6,000 a year. After that, you can always switch to a different card. But this card also offers 6% cash back on streaming with no cap, plus you can get a $7 statement credit a month for the Disney Bundle when you enroll. The annual fee is waived for the first year, and there’s a 0% APR offer. All of this adds up to a great card for everyday purchases.

1% cash back
On all other eligible purchases
1% cash back on all other eligible purchases
3% cash back
Gas
3% cash back at U.S. gas stations
6% cash back
U.S. supermarkets
6% cash back on groceries up to $6,000 per year in purchases at U.S. supermarkets, then 1%
6% cash back
Streaming services
6% cash back on select U.S. streaming subscriptions

Pros

  • Welcome offer
  • Up to 6% cash back

Cons

  • Annual fee
  • High APR
  • Foreign transaction fee
App StatusDateCredit ScoreBureauCredit Limit
Approved01/19/2023
825
Not Provided
$6,000
Approved05/04/2023
738
Experian
$20,000
Approved05/04/2023
748
TransUnion
$20,000
Approved05/04/2023
755
Equifax
$20,000
Citi Custom Cash

Our Rating: 4.7

★★★★

Citi Custom Cash® Card

Welcome Offer

Earn $200 in cash back

Est. Value

$200

Annual Fee

$0

APR

19.24% – 29.24% Variable

Credit Req’d

Good 670 – 739, Excellent 740 – 850

Rewards: Earn 5% cash back in your top eligible spend category each billing cycle up to the first $500 spent, then 1%. Unlimited 1% cash back on other purchases.

The Citi Custom Cash® Card automatically figures out what category you spend the most money in every month and then gives you 5% cash back for that category. You don’t have to do anything–no enrollment, no signing up for a rotating category, nothing. You earn 5% cash back on up to $500 spent per billing cycle. There’s no annual fee, and you get 0% APR on purchases and balance transfers for the first 15 months.

1% cash back
On all other eligible purchases
Earn unlimited 1% cash back on all other purchases.
5% cash back
Select Categories
Earn 5% cash back on purchases in your top eligible spend category each billing cycle, up to the first $500 spent, 1% cash back thereafter.

Pros

  • Welcome offer
  • No annual fee
  • Up to 5% cash back

Cons

  • High APR
  • Foreign transaction fee
App StatusDateCredit ScoreBureauCredit Limit
Approved02/06/2023
748
Experian
$3,800
Approved02/06/2023
759
TransUnion
$3,800
Approved02/06/2023
761
Equifax
$3,800
Approved10/04/2023
784
Experian
$5,300
Approved10/04/2023
801
TransUnion
$5,300
Approved10/04/2023
811
Equifax
$5,300
Approved09/13/2023
800
Not Provided
$11,600
Approved10/24/2023
720
Equifax
$8,000
Approved07/17/2023
790
Equifax
$3,000
Approved01/17/2023
800
TransUnion
$5,300
Denied05/12/2023
800
Not Provided
---
Denied05/19/2024
762
Not Provided
---
Capital One SavorOne Cash Rewards for Good Credit

Our Rating: 4.3

★★★★

Capital One SavorOne Cash Rewards for Good Credit

Welcome Offer (Terms Apply)

Earn unlimited 3% cash back

Est. Value

None

Annual Fee

$0

APR

29.99% Variable

Credit Req’d

Good

Rewards: Earn 10% cash back on Uber & Uber Eats purchases through 11/14/2024, 8% cash back on Capital One Entertainment, 5% cash back on hotels and rental cars booked through Capital One Travel, 3% cash back on entertainment, dining, select streaming services, and grocery stores (excluding superstores). Earn 1% cash back on other purchases.

The Capital One SavorOne Cash Rewards for Good Credit offers elevated cash back on several everyday purchases and there’s no annual fee. There are also no foreign transaction fees so it’s a great card for traveling.

1% cash back
On all other eligible purchases
Earn 1% cash back on all other purchases
3% cash back
U.S. supermarkets
Earn 3% cash back at grocery stores (excluding superstores like Walmart® and Target®)
3% cash back
Streaming services
Earn unlimited 3% cash back on popular streaming services
3% cash back
Dining
Earn unlimited 3% cash back on dining
3% cash back
Entertainment
Earn unlimited 3% cash back on entertainment
5% cash back
Hotels
Earn 5% Cash Back on hotels and rental cars booked through Capital One Travel (terms apply).
5% cash back
Rental Cars
Earn 5% Cash Back on hotels and rental cars booked through Capital One Travel (terms apply).
8% cash back
Entertainment
Earn 8% Cash Back on Capital One Entertainment purchases.
10% cash back
Select Categories
Earn 10% cash back on purchases made through Uber & Uber Eats, plus complimentary Uber One membership statement credits through 11/14/2024

Pros

  • No annual fee
  • No foreign transaction fee
  • 3% cash back on everyday purchases including dining and grocery stores

Cons

  • No welcome bonus
  • High APR
  • Requires good credit
App StatusDateCredit ScoreBureauCredit Limit
Approved03/01/2024
642
TransUnion
$500
Approved03/01/2024
778
Experian
$500
Approved03/01/2024
790
Equifax
$500
Approved05/12/2023
680
Not Provided
$3,000
Approved09/26/2023
680
Experian
$3,000
Denied05/06/2023
660
Not Provided
---

In addition to the above, you might also consider one of these cards:

  • U.S. Bank Cash+® Visa Signature® Card: 5% cash back on travel book through the Rewards Center.
  • Citi Shop Your Way Mastercard: 5% in points at gas stations, 3% at grocery stores and restaurants, and periodic higher reward offers. Rewards can’t be redeemed for cash, but can be redeemed for gift cards at Amazon.
  • Redstone FCU Visa Signature Card: 5% cash back at restaurants and gas stations, 3% on groceries, discount stores, wholesale clubs, utilities, phone and streaming services, and 1.5% on all other purchases.

What’s the Value of a 2-Card Combo?

Here, the question is how much you can increase your average reward rate above the baseline of 2%. Depending on your spending categories, it should be easy to get to 2.5%, and I shoot for 3%. 

As the table above shows, a jump from 2% to 3% can add tens of thousands of dollars to one’s wealth over time.

Three Card Trifecta

Moving to a third card is ideal in two circumstances. You have a specific category where you spend a lot of money each month or you are a frequent traveler. For example, if you put a lot of miles on your car, a card that pays 5% cash back on gas could be worth it. For travelers, it’s worth adding either a generic travel card or brand-specific cards issued by airlines, hotels, or both.

Certain credit card trifectas are popular. These include three-card combinations from Chase, Capital One, American Express, or Citi. However, just because they are popular doesn’t mean they are right for you. You still need to compare your spending patterns to the rewards offered by these cards.

5% Cash Back Cards

Recall that in the table of how much you might earn over time, I included a row for 5% rewards. It’s extremely difficult to average 5% cash back on all of your purchases. You can, however, earn 5% back on a lot of your purchases. It does require carrying several cards.

To help you decide if aiming for 5% is for you, here are some cards that pay 5% in rewards on select purchases.

Credit CardSpending CategoryRewards
Chase Freedom UnlimitedTravel5% cash back on all travel purchased through Chase Travel(SM)
Chase Freedom FlexTravel & Bonus Categories5% cash back on all travel purchased through Chase Travel(SM) and on up to $1,500 in combined purchases in bonus categories each quarter you activate.
Citi Custom CashVariousEarn 5% cash back on purchases in your top eligible spend category each billing cycle, up to the first $500 spent, 1% cash back thereafter.
Amazon Prime CardAmazon, Whole Foods & TravelEarn unlimited 5% back at Amazon.com, Amazon Fresh, Whole Foods Market with an eligible Prime membership and 5% back on Chase Travel purchases with an eligible Prime membership.
American Express Blue Cash Preferred CardGroceries & U.S. streaming subscriptions6% cash back on groceries up to $6,000 per year in purchases at U.S. supermarkets, then 1% and 6% cash back on select U.S. streaming subscriptions.
AAA Daily Advantage Visa Signature® Credit CardGroceriesEarn 5% cash back on grocery store purchases. Combined earn of 5% cash back on grocery store and 3% cash back on wholesale club & gas purchases on the first $10,000 spent in a calendar year, then 1% thereafter.
U.S. Bank Cash+ Visa Siganture CardTravel & Categories of Your Choice5% cash back on your first $2,000 in combined eligible purchases each quarter on two categories you choose and 5% cash back and 5% cash back on prepaid hotels, air, and car rentals booked through the Rewards Center
AAA Travel Advantage CardGas & EV ChargingEarn 5% cash back on gas purchases and electric vehicle-charging stations up to $7,000 spent each year.
Abound Platinum Visa Credit Card Gas5% cash back on fuel purchases paid at the pump.

In addition to the above cards, you’ll also find store-branded cards that pay 5% cash back at their stores. For example, you can find 5% cards for Walmart, Target, and Krogers.

Credit Cards Linked to Investing Platforms

Several investment platforms have issued their cards. In some cases, the rewards are excellent. In other cases, they are mediocre. One advantage of these cards is that they will often deposit your rewards directly into the account you have on the platform. Still, I wouldn’t get one of these cards unless its rewards were excellent.

Here are a few to consider:

My Card Setup

I have a simple strategy for credit card rewards. First, I get a card with a high reward rate on everyday purchases. Then, I add specific cards that offer significantly higher cash back on certain purchases, so long as the card doesn’t charge an annual fee.

Most purchases are currently made with the Bank of America Premium Rewards Credit Card. Because we have Platinum Honors tier with BofA, we get a 75% bonus on the rewards. That means all purchases earn at least 2.625%. We earn 3.5% on travel and dining. Note that Platinum Honors requires that you have at least $100,000 at Bank of America and/or Merrill.

We also used the Citi Double Cash and the Alliant cash back Visa signature card. When available, I plan to apply for the Robinhood Gold Card, which pays 3% cash back on all purchases.

We also use the Amazon Prime Card to shop at Amazon and Whole Foods. There is no annual fee, and it pays 5% cash back at Amazon and Whole Foods. We also carry other cards, such as the Chase Freedom Unlimited and Costco Visa card, but rarely use them.

How to Invest Your Credit Card Rewards

Investing your rewards is simple. Once every month or two, I cash in our rewards. In some cases, I apply the rewards as a statement credit. Either way, I take the reward amount to an investment account. In the past, I’ve used Vanguard and Betterment.

At the moment, I’m experimenting with Robinhood. They offer a 3% match on IRA contributions, which could be a great way to accelerate your wealth. In our case, I’ve invested our rewards in Berkshire Hathaway (BRK.A). Here’s a screenshot from the app:

How to Deal with Points and Miles

Many cards offer rewards in the form of points or miles. These rewards can sometimes be converted to cash or a statement credit. If you choose this option, you’ll want to ensure you get at least 1 cent for each point or mile.

In many cases, however, you get more value by redeeming points or miles for travel. If that’s the case, we take the better value. I then transfer what the cost of the travel would have been had I paid cash from my checking account to the investment account.

How Important are Signup Bonuses?

I love signup bonuses and take advantage of them when they make sense, but I never get a card just for the bonus. I know others do, but it’s just not been my approach. If this is important to you, you can check out our massive list of cards with signup bonuses here.

What About Interest Payments?

This is simple. Do not use this strategy unless you pay off your balance in full every month. The high interest rate credit card issuers charge will cost you more than the rewards you’ll earn.

Conclusion

Well, there you have it. That’s my approach to saving and investing our credit card rewards. If you know of great cards or strategies that have helped stack rewards, please let us know in the comments below.

2 Comments

  1. Hi Rob! I carry the Amazon Prime Card you mentioned above and the Walmart + card from Capital One. The Walmart + card pays 5% on purchases made on Walmart.com or their app, including grocery pick up/delivery purchases (my preferred way to shop). This combination allows me to save 2% on gas purchases and 5% on the household and grocery items from the stores I shop the most. Those two cards plus my Lowe’s Home Improvement Credit Card (which gives an immediate 5% savings at the register) are all I need to get the most cash back on purchases I make most often. I’m planning to start investing my rewards and I have you and your YouTube channel to thank for the idea. Keep up the great work…it is appreciated!

    1. Kim, thanks for sharing this. It sounds like you use the Walmart card much like we use the Amazon Prime card. 5% cash back is hard to beat.

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